This article is devoted to the comparison of certain elements of Aristotle’s moral philosophy with modern theories of moral responsibility. It is shown that an essential part of Aristotle’s intuitions regarding the appropriateness of holding an agent responsible for his morally relevant action, attitude, character trait etc. are identical to the intuitions of modern theories of moral responsibility. T e author comes to the conclusion that high coincidence of basic intuitions may serve as indirect evidence of reality of the phenomenon of moral responsibility itself. In the f rst part of the article af er a series of introductory remarks (§1) Aristotle’s intuitions are compared with modern theories of moral responsibility in the areas of moral evaluations (i.e. praise and blame, §2) and moral factors (i.e. those features of agent for which he or she is held responsible §3).